Some features of the stylistic translation devices
The translation of metaphors, metonymies, similes, allusions forces many translators to perform their work very carefully. Note that the problem of expression translation baffles not only beginners, but also professional translators. One of the most interesting aspects of the theory of translation is the problem of transfer of the stylistic devices of the language. This aspect is scarcely developed so far and continues to attract the attention of theory researchers and practicing linguists. The need for adequate transfer of imaginative information in a fiction is the main aspect in the study of the translation of figures of speech, reproduction of the original stylistic effect in a translation. But at first we should clearly define the notion of “translation”...
As it is known, the translation is a complex multi–dimensional phenomenon, certain aspects of which may be the subject of study of different sciences. Translation represents psychological, literary, ethnographic and other areas of human activity, and also combines the history of translation in a particular country or countries. Thus, many professional linguists identify the following aspects of translation according to the subject of research:
- Psychological translation studies (translation psychology);
- Literary translation studies (theory of fiction or literary translation);
- Ethnographic translation;
- Historical Translation , etc.
Certain aspects of translation studies significantly complement each other, seeking to provide a comprehensive description of translation activity.
N.F. Danovski compares the art of translation with the art of war. He represents the stylistic requirements of a work as strategic issues. The word “poet” may be taken as an example. In Russian, the term has many varieties, colors, synonyms: poet – piit – bard – vitija – bajan – menestrel – ashug – akyn– stihotvorec – versifikator – skazitel – bylinshhik – skomoroh –chastushechnik – rifmoplet – rifmach – stihoplet – virsheplet.
But for a translator to decide which synonym should he use in a given text, he must refer to the stylistic order and features of the original. Thus, a specialist has a great possibility of selection of stylistic and rhetorical figures and tropes. It is stylistic conformity that will be the translator’s ultimate criterion that will help him in the selection of the necessary vocabulary, grammatical forms and sentence structures.
A professional translator uses methods of transmission of certain stylistic devices used in the original in order to make the text brighter and more expressive. At all times, the translators had a dilemma: either to try to copy the original device, or, if the first variant is not possible, to create original stylistic device in a translation, that would have similar emotional artistic effect. This principle is often called a stylistic principle of compensation, in respect of which K.I. Chukovsky declared, that you shouldn’t use a metaphor for a metaphor, a comparison for a comparison, and a smile won’t be a smile just like a tear won’t be a tear, etc. But the newbie “masters of words” should remember that the form is not as important as the function of a stylistic device in the text. This means some discretion: grammatical means of expression can be conveyed by lexical ones and vice versa. Omitting a stylistic phenomenon, that is not expressible in the Russian, the translator will repay "a debt" to the text, creating another image in a different place of the text – where it is most convenient –, but with a similar stylistic orientation [2, p. 234].You can order a test translation —