History of machine translation: page 3  

The need to establish theoretical foundations of machine translation led to the formation of a new trend in linguistics, called structural, applied and mathematical linguistics. The formation of this area in the USSR belongs to the second half of the 1950’s. The leading role in it was played by mathematicians A.A. Lyapunov, V.A. Uspensky, (the student of A.N. Kolmogorov), O.S. Kulagina, linguists V.Y. Rosenzweig, P.S. Kuznetsov, A.A. Reformatsky, I.A. Melchuk, V.V. Ivanov.

On May 6, 1960 the Resolution of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences “On the development of the structural and mathematical methods in the study of language” was adopted, pursuant to which the structural linguistics units were created at the Institute of Linguistics, the Institute of the Russian language of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The Resolution of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences noted that “the lack of theoretical research in the field of structural and mathematical methods in linguistic institutions hinders important practical works on the theory and practice of machine translation, construction of information languages ​​and information machines, logical semantics and other linguistic applications, currently developed in a number of technical and mathematical research institutions“. Since 1960 the training of personnel began in the field of automatic processing of texts at the Philological Faculty of Moscow State University, in Leningrad and Novosibirsk State Universities, Moscow State Linguistics University. The mathematical linguistics meant the study of language as an abstract sign system in order to build theoretical basis for machine translation and to create specific translation algorithms. According to this understanding, mathematical linguistics was a part of semiotics - the general theory of sign systems.

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